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"History of collective racial violence against African Americans by whites"
New York City massacre Riot (July 13–16, 1863) -The exact death toll during the New York Draft Riots is unknown, at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days. The riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area.
New Orleans riot The New Orleans riot, which occurred on July 30, 1866, was a violent conflict in which whites attacked blacks parading outside the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans There were a total of 150 black casualties including 44 killed.
Memphis, Tennessee riots of 1866 were the violent events that occurred from May 1 to 3, 186. 646 blacks and 2 whites were killed, 75 blacks injured, over 100 black persons robbed, 5 black women raped, and 91 homes, 4 churches and 8 schools burned in the black community. Many blacks fled the city permanently.
September 28, 1868: Opelousas massacre - Bands of armed whites scoured the countryside and killed Blacks in what was described as a “Negro hunt”. It is estimated that 200 blacks were killed in the fields and swamps surrounding Opelousas, Louisiana.
Meridian, Mississippi race riot of 1871, In the ensuing mob violence, whites killed as many as 30 blacks over the next few days.
Colfax massacre occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana,Estimates of the number of dead have varied, ranging from 62 to 150; but the number of black victims was difficult to determine because bodies had been thrown into the river or removed for burial.
Vicksburg massacre - On December 7, 1874, armed white men disrupted a black Republican meeting. During the next several days, armed white mobs swept through black areas, killing other men at home or out in the fields.estimates that 300 blacks were killed in the city and the surrounding area of Claiborne County
August 1874: Coushatta massacre was the result of an attack by the White League, a paramilitary organization 20 freedmen were killed.
September 4, 1875, the city of Clinton, Mississippi, experienced a traumatic event. Violence began at a Republican political rally attended primarily by freedmen and their families. After several days of racial violence, as many as fifty people were killed, most of whom were African American men.
November 22, 1887 Thibodaux, Lousiana massacre —was a violent labor dispute and racial attack by whites against black sugar-cane workers which led to the mass killing of an estimated 50 African Americans.
November 10, 1898 Wilmington, North Carolina massacre continued for several days, a mob of nearly 2,000 white men attacked the only black newspaper in the state, and persons and property in black neighborhoods,killing an estimated 15 to more than 60 victims, and destroying homes and businesses built up since the Civil War.
October 1906: Little Rock, Arkansas-Started after a white police officer in Argenta (North Little Rock) killed a black musician, and another black was killed; racial tensions rose with exchange of gunfire, resulting in half a block of commercial buildings on East Washington Avenue burned down, two African-American residences went up in flames, and scores of black families temporarily left the city as armed men roamed the streets.buildings burned down.
Atlanta race riot of 1906 was a mass civil disturbance in Atlanta, Georgia which began the evening of September 22 and lasted until September 24, 1906. The death toll of the conflict is to this day unknown and disputed, but "officially" at least 25 African Americans were killed.
East St. Louis, riots of May and July 1917 were some 3,000 white men marched into downtown and began attacking African Americans. Death toll estimated between 40 and 200 deaths six thousand blacks were left homeless after their neighborhood was burned to the ground.
Chicago race riot was a major racial conflict that began on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3. During the riot, 23 African Americans were killed and over five hundred were injured two-thirds of them African American. Approximately 1,000 residents, mostly African Americans, were left homeless because of the fires. The combination of prolonged arson, looting, and murder was the worst race rioting in the history of Illinois.
Elaine, Arkansas massacre, took place on September 30-October 1, 1919 in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas. Over a three-day period, an estimated 100-240 blacks, with some estimates of more than 800 blacks killed, it was the deadliest racial conflict in United States history.
Tulsa, Oklahoma massacre was a large-scale, racially motivated conflict on May 31 and June 1, 1921, in which a group of whites attacked the black community of Greenwood, the wealthiest black community in the United States was burned to the ground, police arrested and detained more than 6,000 black Greenwood residents at three local facilities. An estimated 10,000 blacks were left homeless, and 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences were destroyed by fire, resulting in over $26 million in damages. The official count of the dead vary from 150-300 cause there was a rush to bury the bodies and that no records were made of many burials.
Rosewood massacre was a violent, racially motivated massacre of blacks and destruction of a black town that took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida. As many as 150 African Americans people were killed and the town of Rosewood was abandoned and destroyed.
May 1927: Little Rock, Arkansas - Lynching of John Carter, a suspect in a murder, was followed by rioting by 5,000 whites in the city, who destroyed a black business area
Detroit race riot broke out, in June 1943, and lasted for three days before 6,000 Federal troops were called in to restore peace. A total of 34 people were killed, 25 of them black and most at the hands of police or guardsmen; 433 were wounded, 75 percent of them black; and property valued at $2 million was destroyed, most of it in the black area of Paradise Valley, the poorest neighborhood of the city.